Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic and is used primarily as an anesthetic in the treatment of severe and chronic pain and in anesthesia.
Fentanyl is one of the opioid analgesics. It is primarily used for severe pain such as chronic tumor pain, multiple trauma, burns and fractures. It is 100 times more powerful than morphine.In addition to the use of painkillers, it is also suitable for use as a narcotic in high doses of anesthesia.
Opioid analgesics work through receptors called opioid receptors. Lipophilic fentanyl binds primarily to the μ-opioid receptor on cell surfaces. Since this type of receptor is found in many parts of the body, fentanyl has both central and peripheral effects.
It prevents the formation or transmission of impulses in the surrounding sensory nerve endings. It intervenes in pain pathways at the spinal and supraspinal level and modulates the sensation of pain, among other things. Fentanyl also has a sedative effect through opioid receptors in the brain and causes coma at high doses.
Since fentanyl easily crosses the blood-brain barrier, it has a euphoric effect and has a high addiction potential. Due to the widespread distribution of μ-opioid receptors in the body, the active substance also has a wide range of side effects, some of which have life-threatening complications.
Fentanyl can be administered orally, sublingually, transdermally, as a nasal spray, or intravenously. The duration of action depends on the dosage form. As an example, the two most common dosage forms are discussed here: intravenous and transdermal.
1. Intravenous administration
A central effect occurs just 5 minutes after application. The distribution half-life is approximately 10 minutes but is shorter in well-perfused tissues. Its half-life is 3 to 12 hours, depending on habit.
2. Transdermal application
When fentanyl is administered via patch, serum levels increase slowly and reach adequate levels after 12 to 24 hours. This level remains relatively constant for approximately 72 hours. Its half-life is 17 hours.
Approximately 80% of the active ingredient binds to plasma proteins, regardless of dosage form. Fentanyl is primarily metabolized to norfentanyl in the liver via the CYP3A4 enzyme. Norfentanil has no opioid effect. Excretion occurs mainly through the kidneys and only a small percentage through the feces.
Most of the active substance is stored in the lungs during the first pass. As a result, the content increases in tissues with poor blood supply and then accumulates, especially in fat and muscle tissue.
What Will We Learn?
How Long Does Fentanyl Stay In Your System?
Depending on the dose you take, fentanyl may remain in your system for more or less time.
The effects of the drug are felt for several hours, but the active ingredient can remain in your system for a long time and show up on a drug test.
Frequency of use, duration of use, amount of dose taken, weight, urine concentration, and impairments in kidney and liver functions may affect the detection time of the drug.
It can be seen in a urine test for 24-72 hours after a person with a healthy body structure stops using fentanyl.
Not only urine but also hair and blood tests can be used to detect fentanyl.
Additionally, norfentanyl, the metabolite that emerges in the body after the breakdown of fentanyl, can be detected for up to 96 hours.
The detection time of this drug in blood tests varies between 5 and 48 hours.
Some painkillers can also show up in saliva tests, but this is very difficult for this drug.
The drug can be tested in hair tests for up to 90 days. However, this may vary depending on the particular protocol the laboratory uses and the sensitivity of the test. For detailed information, it is important to contact a private laboratory or healthcare facility where the test is performed.
What Happens If You Take Too Much?
Opiates, such as fentanyl, should be used with extreme caution because they can cause serious health problems and death if taken in excessive amounts. It is known as a very powerful pain reliever belonging to the opioid family and is especially prescribed for medical use. However, dangerous consequences may occur as a result of excessive use by mistake or for malicious purposes.
Overdose or abuse of fentanyl can cause the following health problems:
- Respiratory Depression – Fentanyl can slow breathing by depressing the respiratory system. When overdosed, respiratory depression may occur, leading to decreased oxygen levels and potentially life-threatening complications.
- Loss of Consciousness – Fentanyl overdose can cause unconsciousness and coma.
- Death – In the most serious case, a fentanyl overdose can cause death. Particularly relevant to the opioid crisis, street-sold versions of fentanyl (those that are impure, adulterated, or counterfeit) are even riskier.
If you or anyone else has suspected fentanyl or other opioid poisoning, you should seek emergency medical attention immediately. Understanding the risks associated with strong opioids such as fentanyl and their use is important to protect one’s health. If a person is having trouble using fentanyl or another opioid substance, it is important to seek professional help.
How Can You Leave It Safely?
It is important to safely stop using opioid substances such as fentanyl, and this process should be done under professional health care and guidance. The addiction associated with opioids can cause serious health risks, and attempts to quit on one’s own can be dangerous.
When dealing with fentanyl or other opioid substance addiction, it is important to seek professional help. A healthcare professional or addiction specialist can create a treatment plan appropriate for the individual.
There are special centers and programs for addiction treatment. At these places, specialists can offer treatment options tailored to the individual’s needs. These options may include medication, therapy, support groups, and other resources.
Specific medications are available for addiction to fentanyl and other opioids. These medications can help relieve addiction symptoms and support treatment.
The process of stopping fentanyl use usually includes a detoxification phase. This stage is the process of clearing the substance from the body and reducing physical dependence. However, this process should be done under professional supervision.
Addiction treatment should include not only physical but also psychological and emotional support. Resources such as therapy, counseling, and support groups may be provided to the individual.
Family members and the social environment can play an important role in combating addiction. A supportive environment can support an individual’s healing process.
Dealing with powerful opioids like fentanyl is a complex process, and it is important to seek professional guidance and help along the way. The person should not try to quit such substances on his own and should contact a healthcare professional.
Opioids, such as fentanyl, have powerful pain-relieving properties, but can also cause a variety of side effects and health risks. These side effects may vary depending on dosage, method of use, the individual’s general health, and other factors. Here are the commonly reported side effects of fentanyl:
- Respiratory Depression
- Drowsiness and Sedation
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Dizziness and Headache
- Tolerance and Addiction
- Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)
- Muscle Stiffness
Side effects not listed above may also occur. If any of these side effects occur, you should talk to your doctor without delay.
You can also read our article about 1p190 Pill (Naproxen Tablets 500 mg), another painkiller.